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An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as Flow, Temperature, Level, Pressure, Distance and Angle. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading thermometer or may be complex multi-variable process analyzers. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instrumentation can also refer to handheld devices that measure some desired variable. Diverse handheld instrumentation is common in laboratories, but can be found in the household as well. For example, a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most western homes.
Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate solenoids, valves, regulators, circuit breakers or relays. These devices control a desired output variable, and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control systems.
A Transmitter is a device that produces an output signal, often in the form of a 4 - 20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a PLC, DCS, SCADA,ESD/SIS,FGS system, or other type of computerized controller, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system.
A valve is a device for Controlling the passage of fluid/Pressure/Level through a Pipe or duct/Tank,especially an automatic device allowing movement in one direction.Two type of valve's are used in industries,
Control instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters, and as such are a key part of control loops.